Budgerigar Brain Atlas

By Steven E. Brauth, James T. Heaton, Todd F. Roberts and Wenru Liang
Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742

This atlas of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) brain was prepared from 49 transverse sections 25 micrometers apart, ranging from 6.00 mm anterior to 6.00 mm posterior to the interaural line. In order to produce the plane of section used in this atlas, the head was placed in a Kopf stereotaxic atlas with the upper bill tip positioned 5 mm below the interaural line. The reader should note that an international group of scientists has proposed a revised nomenclature for the avian brain which is different from the traditional nomenclature (i.e. Karten and Hodos, 1967). This new nomenclature is used in this atlas of the budgerigar brain.


Abbreviation Name of Neural Structure
A Arcopallium
AAC Central nucleus of the anterior arcopallium
AACd Dorsal subdivision of AAc
AACv Ventral subdivision of AAc
AL Ansa lenticularis
An Nucleus angularis
AP Area Pretectalis
Ap Posterior arcopallium
APH Area parahippocampalis
Bas Nucleus basorostralis
BCD Brachium conjunctivum decendens
CA Commissura anterioris
Cb Cerebellum
CbL Nucleus cerebellaris lateralis
CbM Nucleus cerebellaris medialis
CHCS Tractus corticohabenularis et corticoseptalis
CIO Capsula internus occipitalis
CP Commissura posterior
CS Nucleus centralis superior (Bechterew)
Ct Commissura tectalis
CTz Corpus trapezoidea
D Nucleus of Darkschewitz
DIP Nucleus dorsointermedius posterior thalami
DLAmc Nucleus dorsolateralis anterior thalami pars magnocellularis
DLL Nucleus dorsolateralis anterior thalami pars lateralis
DLP Nucleus dorsolateralis posterior thalami
DMm Magnicellular nucleus of the dorsomedial thalamus
DMP Nucleus dorsomedialis posterior thalami
E Entopallium
EM Nucleus ectomammillaris
FLM Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis
FPL Fasciculus prosencephali lateralis
FPM Fasciculus prosencephali medialis
FU Fasciculus uncinatus
GCt Substantia grisea centralis
GP Globus pallidus
HA Hyperpallium apicalis
Hb Habenula nucleus
HD Hyperpallium densocellulare
HI Hyperpallium intercalatus
Hp Hippocampus
ICc Central nucleus of the inferior colliculus
ICo Nucleus intercollicularis
INP Nucleus intrapeduncularis
IO Nucleus isthmo-opticus
IP Nucleus interpeduncularis
Ipc Nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis
IS Nucleus interstitialis
L1 Lamina 1 of Field L
L2a Lamina 2a of Field L
L2b Lamina 2b of Field L
L3 Lamina 3 of Field L
La Nucleus laminaris
LL Lateral lemniscus
LLd Dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus
LLI Intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus
LLv Ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus
LMmc Nucleus lentiformis mesencephali pars magnocellularis
LoC Locus coeruleus
LSt Lateral striatum
M Mesopallium
MC Nucleus magnocellularis
MLd Nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis
MO Oval nucleus of the mesopallium
MPv Nucleus mesencephalicus profundus
MSt Medial striatum
MStm Magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum
Mvm Ventromedial mesopallium
N Nidopallium
NAO Oval nucleus of the anterior nidopallium
NAOm Medial oval nucleus of the anterior nidopallium
NC Nidopallium caudale
NFl Frontal lateral nidopallium
NLC Central nucleus of the lateral nidopallium
NLs Supracentral nucleus of the lateral nidopallium
NI nidopallium intermedium
NIDL Nidopallium intermedium pars dorsolateralis
NIII Nervus oculomotorius
nIII Nucleus oculomotorius
NV Nervus trigeminus
nV Nucleus motorius nervi trigemini
nVd Nucleus nervi trigemini descendens
nVI Nucleus nervi abducentis
NVI Nervus abducentis
NVII Nervus facialis
nXIIts Nucleus nervi hypoglossis pars tracheosyringealis
NIVL Nidopallium intermedium pars ventrolateralis
Ov Nucleus ovoidalis
OI Nucleus olivaris inferioris
OM Tractus occipitomesencephalicus
PaP Nucleus papilloformis
PL Nucleus pontis lateralis
PM Nucleus pontis medialis
POA Nucleus preopticus anterior
PrV Nucleus sensorium principalis nervi trigemini
Pt Nucleus pretectalis
PrV Nucleus sensorius principalis nervi trigemini
R Nucleus raphe
RPgc Nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis pars gigantocellularis
RPO Nucleus reticularis pontis oralis
Rt Nucleus rotundus
Ru Nucleus ruber
SAC Stratum album centrale
SCd Nucleus subcoeruleus dorsalis
SCv Nucleus subcoeruleus ventralis
SGC Stratum griseum centrale
SGF griseum et fibrosum
SL Nucleus septalis lateralis
SLu Nucleus semilunaris
SM Nucleus septalis medialis
SNc Substantia nigra pars compacta
SOp Stratum opticum
SPC Nucleus superficialis parvocellularis
SpL Nucleus spiriformis lateralis
SpM Nucleus spiriformis medialis
SPO Nucleus semilunaris parovoidalis
TN Nucleus taeniae
TTd Nucleus et tractus descendens nervi trigemini
VeD Nucleus vestibularis dorsalis
VeM Nucleus vestibularis medialis
VeS Nucleus vestibularis superioris
VSt Ventral striatum